IJSRET Volume 9 Issue 4, July-Aug-2023


Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems And Active Power Filtering Function, A Review
Authors:- Rakesh Kumar, Shweta Chourasia

Abstract- The inverter is an essential element in a photovoltaic system. It exists as different topologies. This review-paper focuses on different technologies for connecting photovoltaic (PV) modules to a three-phase- grid. The inverters are categorized into some classifications: the number of power processing stages; the use of decoupling capacitors and their locations; the use or no of the transformers; the type of three phase inverter; whether they are preceded by a DC/DC converter or not .Some of three-phase topologies are presented, compared according to the type of control (i.e. the PWM method; the bang-bang method or the fuzzy logic method or numerical control and a comparison with single-phase inverters is given.

Integration of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems and Active Power Filtering Function
Authors:- Rakesh Kumar, Shweta Chourasia

Abstract- Solar panels are an attractive and growing source of renewable energy in commercial and residential applications. Its use connected to the grid by means of a power converter results in a grid-connected photovoltaic system. In order to optimize this system, it is interesting to integrate several functionalities into the power converter, such as active power filtering and power factor correction. Nonlinear loads connected to the grid generate current harmonics, which deteriorates the mains power quality. Active power filters can compensate these current harmonics. A photovoltaic system with added harmonic compensation and power factor correction capabilities is proposed in this paper. A sliding mode controller is employed to control the power converter, implemented on the Compact RIO digital platform from National Instruments Corporation, allowing user friendly operation and easy tuning. The power system consists of two stages, a DC/DC boost converter and a single-phase inverter, and it is able to inject active power into the grid while compensating the current harmonics generated by nonlinear loads at the point of common coupling. The operation, design, simulation, and experimental results for the proposed system are discussed.

Iot Based Air Pollution Monitoring System
Authors:- Uddesh U Naik, Shreyash R Salgaokar, Shreeyank Jambhale

Abstract-Humans can be adversely affected by exposure to air pollutants in ambient air. Hence, health-based standards and objectives for some pollutants in the air are set by each country detection and measurement of contents of the atmosphere are becoming increasingly important. Careful planning of measurements is essential. One of the major factors that influencethe representativeness of data collected is the location of monitoring stations the planning and setting up of monitoring stations are complex and incurs a huge expenditure. Air pollution affects our day-to-day activities and quality of life. It poses a threat to the ecosystem and the quality of life on the planet. The dire need to monitor air quality is very glaring, owing to increased industrial activities over the past years. People need to know the extent to which their activities affect air quality. This project proposes an air pollution monitoring system. An IoT-based air pollution monitoring system is proposed to monitor the pollution levels of various pollutants. The geographical area is classified as industrial, Residential, and traffic zones theproposes an IoT system that could be deployed at any location and store the measured values in a cloud database, perform pollution analysis, and display the pollution level at any given location.

Design And Analysis Of Connecting Rod-A Review
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Alsabah Rayeen, Professor Ganesh Kesheorey

Abstract-The connecting rod is an essential component found within internal combustion engines, serving as the link between the piston and the crankshaft. Its primary function is to transmit power from the piston to the crankshaft, making it a critical factor in terms of structural stability and performance. Manufacturers have focused on reducing the weight of the connecting rod by optimizing its form and minimizing the use of materials, although this approach is not always feasible. The production of lightweight connecting rods is therefore a key objective. Additionally, the connecting rod plays a vital role in high-volume production outputs. Each internal combustion engine, depending on the number of cylinders, requires at least one connecting rod. Consequently, optimizing the design of the connecting rod is a rational pursuit. This optimization process aims to reduce the weight of engine components, resulting in decreased inertia loads, lower overall motor weight, improved motor efficiency, and energy savings.

Review analysis Of Harmonics And Power Quality For Microgrid Connected To 500 Kw Solar Pv Plant
Authors:- Siddharth Bisariya, Prof. Indrajeet Kumar, Prof. Priyank Gour

Abstract-The plant (an arrangement of solar panels) which converts solar energy to light energy from the sun into electrical energy (charge emission) is called a solar power plant process. In solar plant there are many solar panels are connected and in panels there are many cells units which make panels. In which special metal is used which is in the form of lines and these lines are also connected to very thin lines and all these lines are connected to a metal line frame which is mainly quadrilateral in shape. So there is large area to trap light i.e. now there is a suitable area for light to fall on it as the metal arrangement in large to fall on it electrons start’s to emit from thin lines to metal frame and current goes into a diode box which is behind the panel and then comes into supply wires.

RA Review on Sustainable Concrete For Future:Geo-Polymer Concrete
Authors:- Asst. Prof. Chittem Mounika, Asst. Prof.Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-OPC/PSC or PPC cements are typically employed in construction projects, and producing them not only uses a significant quantity of limestone and fossil fuels, but also results in the generation of nearly 0.9 tons of CO2 for every ton of cement clinker. Additionally, 2.8 billion tons of man-made greenhouse gases are produced annually by the cement industry. The components and chemistry of geo-polymer concrete, which is made from waste materials like fly ash (Class F or C), rice husk, and binding solution devoid of cement, are completely different. This article provides a broad overview of the steps and variables that have an impact on geo-polymer concrete to date. An alumino-silicate source, such as fly ash or GGBS (waste materials), is activated to create this inorganic 3D polymer. It is a revolutionary construction material for the future because of its outstanding mechanical qualities along with significant chemical resistance (attack by magnesium or sulfate), minimal shrinkage and creep, and environmentally friendly nature (extremely less CO2 output in contrast to OPC). As of now, it has been observed that the strength of geo-polymer concrete is mostly influenced by the molarities of the alkaline liquid (NaOH or KOH) and the mass ratios of the geo-polymer particles to water, SiO2 and Na2O, H2O and Na2O, Si and Al, and other alkaline solutions. Although the alkaline solution pollutes the environment to some level, it has been observed that geo-polymer concrete constructed entirely of fly ash or with partial substitution by GGBS resulted in an 80% reduction in CO2 emission compared to OPC. A very good candidate material for the future, geo-polymer concrete is superior to cement concrete according to extensive tests in a variety of processes and parameters.

Fault Effect Analysis and Frequency Deviation Detection in Smart Solar Connected Grid
Authors:-Samiksha Tripathi, Associate Professor Arun Pachori

Abstract- Grid are integrated with distributed energy resources provide many benefits, including high power quality, energy efficiency and low carbon emissions, to the power grid. Grids are operated either in grid-connected or island modes running on different strategies. However, one of the major technical issues in a grid is unintentional islanding, where failure to trip the grid may lead to serious consequences in terms of protection, security, voltage and frequency stability, and safety. Therefore, fast and efficient islanding detection is necessary for reliable grid operations. This paper provides an Analysis of grid islanding detection method, which are classified as local and remote.

Student Attendance Monitoring System using IoT and RFID
Authors:-Asst.Prof. Raghu P, Asst. Prof. Santosh M , Asst.Prof. Lohith C

Abstract- It is a difficult undertaking to keep kids’ attendance up at a school. The manual handling of attendance is never easy. The goal of this project is to create a smart attendance system that effectively tracks and maintains student attendance in a setting on an automated basis. RFID readers and an Arduino Uno microcontroller were used to construct the entire system. Students’ ID cards may be equipped with distinctive RFID tags. Additionally, Wi-Fi communication modules are employed to facilitate communication that is dependent on network availability. The creation of a student database is necessary. Messages on the pupils’ attendance status are sent to parents’ mobile devices via a GSM module. To determine the student’s current location, a GPS module is employed. Teachers and administrators at any school won’t have to do as much manual labor thanks to this method. IoT and RFID, two of the most well-liked technological trends, are included in the suggested work.

Enhancement of Heat Transfer Rate in Solar Air Heater Using Discrete W-Shaped Roughness
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Nitisha Sharma, Prof. D.S. Rawat

Abstract- The most popular and affordable solar energy systems are solar air heaters (SAHs). The SAH roughness solar heaters have been the subject of numerous successful experimental and analytical studies by a number of researchers as the absorbing plate gathers sun light and distributes heat energy to the flowing air. In order to maximize heat transfer absorption in the solar air heater duct, the artificial roughness components that disintegrate the laminar sub-layer at the surface of the absorber plate are described in depth in this study. The most popular and commonly used solar energy collection equipment for drying agricultural products, heating indoor spaces, seasoning wood, and curing industrial goods is the solar air heater (SAH). It is also the most affordable solar energy harvesting system. One effective technique is to use a surface that has been purposely roughened to maximize the amount of heat that is delivered to the fluid that is passing through the duct of a SAH.

Website for Medical and Blood supply by Unmanned Drone
Authors:- Sayantan Dey, Saraswat Sen, Raj Basu, Gourabarko Dhar, Jeet Mukherjee, Anurima Majumdar, Antara Ghosal, Koushik Pal

Abstract- The current India blood supply system relies on a combination of and regional and hospital providers. The smallest and most accessible hospitals in our area, usually have 4 to 12 bed and, Usually have 2 to 6 red cells units on their list and no new plasma or platelets. Our website is mainly based on supply of medicine and blood and is named “Life Max”. We have used HTML, CSS, Java Script, TailWind CSS, React. We have two fields in the application one is admin field and other is User field. In the user field anyone who needs blood urgently, then he/she can request for blood by filling some Urgent details. Also, user can see the available blood bank of different blood group. Blood management and supply is an important but considered challenging exercise in the healthcare industry. Inventory managers in the blood storage and transportation industries are always looking for efficient and timely responses from their customers. In emergency situations, blood shortages have a significant impact on the lives of patients who need blood transfusions. On the other hand, donating blood to patients requires efficient and timely, adequate transportation and supply chain. Poor transportation systems can lead to blood shortages, delivery inefficiencies, and even contamination. All over the world, there is a shortage of blood donors; therefore, all waste due to ineffective delivery solutions. The current review aims to compare blood delivery in densely populated cities, especially using cars and motorbikes as a delivery solution. Based on a systematic literature review, the most effective and efficient blood transfusion system in a congested city can be determined by considering SC cost, time availability, and emergency severity. The current study provides a comparative analysis of blood delivery systems in congested cities. It also helps stakeholders to make decisions quickly and efficiently.In the website the availability of the blood and medicine will be sorted in a manner that it will show the shortest distance seller with the matching blood group or the medicines, the consumer wants. The delivery work of the order through drone involves the order of medicines using our application. The consumer has to enter the details like name, email id, mobile number, and delivery location. All these information will be stored in the database. A passcode will be generated in our website which will be sent to the user and the admin. Using GPS the drone reaches the location, the consumer needs to enter the PIN as a passcode in the website, which was sent at the time of ordering, so that the person can open the lock system and take the ordered products. In the admin part, by using our website, admin can add or delete donor details edit stock details manage stock of blood, Search donor details by blood group, and also get the pin code of the user to set that in the drone for reaching at the Selected location, and to approve the request of blood during its handling in the blood bank. The essential features of this website are: The user can track the drone and is also very much secure, as the product can be accepted by the person who ordered it.

Electric Vehicle Aggregators in Electricity Markets under Optimal Conditions: Review
Authors:-M. Tech. Scholar Vikas Thakur, Assistant Professor Harjit Singh

Abstract- With the increasing adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), there is a growing need to efficiently integrate them into the existing electricity grid. Electric Vehicle Aggregators (EVAs) play a crucial role in this integration process by managing the charging and discharging patterns of a fleet of EVs to optimize energy utilization, grid stability, and economic benefits. This paper focuses on developing a scheduling framework for EVAs in electricity markets under optimal conditions.

Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality
Authors:-Rijul Bilaiya, Vitthal S. Gutte

Abstract- The advancements of Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have led to significant changes in the way we interact with digital content. AR offers an experience where digital information is superimposed on the physical world, whereas VR creates an immersive experience in a fully digital environment. The scope of applications for both AR and VR ranges from entertainment and gaming to education, healthcare, and engineering. The primary challenge in developing these technologies is to create an experience that seamlessly blends the physical and digital worlds. Accomplishing this requires advanced techniques in computer vision, image processing, and rendering, as well as sophisticated hardware and software infrastructure. With the continuous development of AR and VR, they are expected to make a significant impact on several aspects of our lives and become more integrated into our daily routines.

A Review On Use And Performance Of In Steel Highway Bridges
Authors:- Assistant Professor Bakshetty Snehalatha, , Associate Professor Dr. Srikanth Ramvath

Abstract- Uncoated weathering steel (UWS) bridges have been in use in the United States for nearly 50 years, now enabling the long-term performance of these structures to be assessed. This was accomplished by surveying the varied experiences of 52 U.S. transportation agencies, along with data analysis on all UWS bridges known within these and other agencies, which total nearly 10,000 structures. Climate and age were key considerations in this data analysis. Contrary to previous, more limited research, this analysis showed that there is not a strong trend in UWS bridge performance as a function of climate. A similar climate analysis for non-UWS bridges also showed a counterintuitive relationship be- tween some climate types and these bridges. This suggests that design and maintenance practices may be more influential to UWS performance than climate, and further research to cultivate current best practices in this regard is recommended. Comparison between the UWS and non- UWS data sets also reveals that UWS bridges generally perform well in relation to non-UWS bridges.

A Deep Learning Based Approach for Heart Disease Classification using PCG Datasets
Authors:- Smita Waskale, Arjun singh Parihar , Manisha Kadam

Abstract- Heart related diseases presently pose one of the major threat worldwide. Heart abnormalities show a wide variation because of which accurate diagnosis becomes challenging. Phonocardigram (PCG) signals and their analysis has opened up a new paradigm in telemedicine. The abrupt fluctuations and the randomness of the PCG signals make them difficult to analyze and extract key parameters called features. Conventional Fourier techniques fail in this regard. In this paper, we have proposed a wavelet based technique wherein the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) have been used for the processing and feature extraction of the PCG signals has been done subsequently. The features extracted are energy, variance, entropy and standard deviation. The features extracted can be subsequently utilized for the classification of the PCG signals using the Conjugate Gradient Algorithm. The three categories of classified are: stenosis, regurgidation and normal. It has been shown that the proposed algorithm attains an accuracy of 93%.

Modeling and Analysis of Grid Connected Induction Generator for Wind Power Application: Review
Authors:-M. Tech. Scholar Mohit Kumar, Assistant Professor Harjit Singh

Abstract- Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing use of induction generator particularly in wind power applications. In generator operation, a prime mover (turbine, engine) drives the rotor above the synchronous speed. Stator flux still induces currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils, and motor now operates as a generator, and sends power back to the electrical grid. Based on the source of reactive power induction generators can be classified into two types namely standalone generator and Grid connected induction generator. In case of standalone IGs the magnetizing flux is established by a capacitor bank connected to the machine and in case of grid connection it draws magnetizing current from the grid.

Enhancement of Micro-strip performance with improvement of antenna gain and feeding technique
Authors:- Pawan Kumar Nishad, Ashish Suryavanshi

Abstract- The goal of this observed is to design and analysis the Microstrip Patch Antenna which covers the Ultra Wide Band 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. This synopsis covers study of basics and fundamentals of microstrip patch antenna. A series of parametric study were done to find that how the characteristics of the antenna depends on its various geometrical and other parameters. The various geometrical parameters of the antenna are the dimensions of the patch and ground planes and the separation between them and it also includes the dielectric constant of the substrate material. The parametric study also contains the study of different techniques for optimizing the different parameters of antenna to get the optimum results and performance. This is a simulation based study. The design and simulation of the antenna is carried out using microwave Studio simulation software. Four antennas with different types of shapes were designed which cover the entire UWB range. The First designed antenna has two half circular patches which are overlapped to each other. A narrow rectangular slit is added to the patch to improve the performance of antenna.

Cfd Analysis Of Flat Plate Solar Collecter
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Arjun Kumar Prajapati, Prof. Brijendra Kumar Yadav

Abstract- Fossil fuel sources are confined and so the present scenario of energy consumption and growth are not sustainable in the longer term. The energy demand for different applications can be attained by pick up of the solar energy efficiently. Solar energy is the most promising source of energy and the simplest and efficient way of using solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy for heating applications such as space heating, drying of agricultural products and various industrial applications by using solar air heater. The solar air heater is not efficient due to low convective heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and flowing air. The low rate of heat transfer coefficient is due to presence of a viscous sub-layer. Turbulence element on absorber plate breaks up the laminar sub-layer and increases heat transfer. Increased heat transfer makes the system more effective. Various investigators have investigated the effect of heat transfer and friction factor in various geometries of artificial roughness in a solar air heater duct.

A Review On Cfd Analysis Of Flat Plate Solar Collecter
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Arjun Kumar Prajapati, Prof. Brijendra Kumar Yadav

Abstract-Fossil fuel sources are confined and so the present scenario of energy consumption and growth are not sustainable in the longer term. The energy demand for different applications can be attained by pick up of the solar energy efficiently. Solar energy is the most promising source of energy and the simplest and efficient way of using solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy for heating applications such as space heating, drying of agricultural products and various industrial applications by using solar air heater. The solar air heater is not efficient due to low convective heat transfer coefficient between absorber plate and flowing air. The low rate of heat transfer coefficient is due to presence of a viscous sub-layer. Turbulence element on absorber plate breaks up the laminar sub-layer and increases heat transfer. Increased heat transfer makes the system more effective. Various investigators have investigated the effect of heat transfer and friction factor in various geometries of artificial roughness in a solar air heater duct.

Advancements in CMOS LC VCO Design for Radio Frequency Applications: A Comprehensive Review
Authors:- M.Tech, Research Scholar Aafreen Khanam , Prof. Nitin Tenguria

Abstract-This paper delves into the examination of various topologies employed in the design of CMOS LC VCOs, with a specific focus on achieving lower power consumption and reduced phase noise. Four distinct topologies were investigated and compared based on their power consumption and phase noise characteristics. The results of this comparative analysis reveal that the CMOS LC VCO with pseudo resistance exhibits the lowest phase noise, while the differential cross-coupled CMOS LC VCO demonstrates superior power efficiency. Among the studied topologies, the cross-coupled differential LC VCO topology emerges as a popular choice for optimizing the trade-off between phase noise and power consumption. By leveraging this topology, designers can strike a balance between these competing factors, leading to improved performance in practical applications.

Design of Low Power SRAM using Power Gating and DG-MOS Technology
Authors:-M. Tech. Scholar Pritesh Gupta, Asst.Prof. Ashish Joshi,Asst.Prof. Ashish Ranjan

Abstract-The paper presents a 6T SRAM based on DG-MOSFET and Sleep Transistor for leakage current reduction. A bulk 6T SRAM is implemented and simulated for the proper functioning of the SRAM cell for 1 bit storage on the 90nm technology. We have used a DG-MOSFET for reducing the threshold voltage and so the power consumption. On the circuit level, the static power dissipation has been considered. Reduction of leakage current is done by using Sleep Transistor technique. The DG-MOSFET based 6T SRAM with Sleep Transistor technique is implemented and simulated. The designing and simulation tool we used is Cadence virtuoso. The transient, DC and parametric analysis provide the results. The transient response helps demonstrate the proper functioning of the SRAM, while the DC response provides results related to voltage values, which are useful for understanding the power consumption of the circuit. The parametric analysis gives different values of leakage current on different width of the MOSFET which shows that the bulk 6T SRAM consumes more power than DG-MOSFET based 6T SRAM with Sleep Transistor. The results indicate improved performance of the proposed static RAM compared to the conventional static RAM in terms of leakage reduction.

Investigation and Usage of Tyre Rubber in Pavement Layers for Strengthening
Authors:- PG Scholar Nunavath Suresh, Asst.Prof. K. Abhiram

Abstract-This paper delves into the examination of various topologies employed in the design of CMOS LC VCOs, with a specific focus on achieving lower power consumption and reduced phase noise. Four distinct topologies were investigated and compared based on their power consumption and phase noise characteristics. The results of this comparative analysis reveal that the CMOS LC VCO with pseudo resistance exhibits the lowest phase noise, while the differential cross-coupled CMOS LC VCO demonstrates superior power efficiency. Among the studied topologies, the cross-coupled differential LC VCO topology emerges as a popular choice for optimizing the trade-off between phase noise and power consumption. By leveraging this topology, designers can strike a balance between these competing factors, leading to improved performance in practical applications.

Application and Analysis of Waste Plastic as An Effective Pavement Materials
Authors:- PG Scholar R. Prasanna Kumar, Asst.Prof.K. Abhiram

Abstract-Conventional materials’ year-round availability in sufficient quantity and quality is a major challenge for construction workers in this age of energy crises and resource depletion. The need for these supplies rises steadily as the demand for shelter and living space rises at an ever- increasing rate. Researchers throughout the world are refocusing their efforts to develop locally accessible, low-cost masonry units in response to the problem. To allow for the use of low- quality materials and low-skilled labor in the mass manufacturing of building blocks, the idea of green material and construction has been properly defined in the study. In this light, there is a rising interest in using earth, as a sustainable material, in contemporary architecture. The proper disposal of trash is one of the most pressing environmental issues in the United States today. There are now millions of cubic meters of discarded plastic in our nation. Suitable accommodation of the trash in some form (as fibres) is one approach to resolving these solid waste management and environmental challenges. Basic research can examine their potential use in the production of fiber-based blocks (plastic fiber–mud blocks). Furthermore, the literature study reveals that with very few exceptions, investigations on natural fibers have concentrated on cellulose based/vegetable fibers generated from sustainable plant resources.

Analysis of Exhaust Muffler In Internal Combustion Engine Usingfinite Element Method
Authors:- Research Scholar Om Deo Bhaskar, Asst. Prof. Ramnarayan Sahu, Asst. Prof. Yogesh Mishra

Abstract-Internal combustion engines have been playing a vital role and will remain an active area of engineering education and research in future. Most of the researches in internal combustion engines are of operating performance and fuel performance improvement oriented. Almost all the components in an internal combustion engine are subjected to heat loads. The current study attempt has been made to simulate the physical working conditions of components of an internal combustion engine. The analysis is virtual simulation (because it was carried out with the help of a digital computer and a software tool-ANSYS 17). The current study emphasizes on stress, strain, temperature, heat flux, thermal gradient distributions in the component Exhaust muffler materials. CREO was used for the solid modeling of engine components and ANSYS 17 was used for the analysis. The study was carried out on prime components of an internal combustion engine such as Exhaust Muffler.Exhaust muffler were subjected to study heat and fluid flow loads.

Advancing Technology And Customer Retention In The Telecom Industry Of Uganda: A Case Of Uganda Telecom Limited
Authors:- Isabella Namirembe , Bruce Musinguzi

Abstract-This study focused on exploring how advancing technology influences customer retention in Uganda’s telecom industry, specifically using UTL as a case study. The research objectives were to assess the impact of advancing electronic mobile services, advancing data services/products, and advances in equipment on customer retention in UTL. A descriptive cross-sectional research design was employed, and data was gathered through questionnaires and interviews with 80 respondents from a population of 115 subjects. The findings of the study indicated that advancing electronic mobile services, advancing data services/products, and advancing equipment services all significantly influenced customer retention. Based on these results, the research concluded that there exists a moderate, statistically significant positive relationship between these advancing technologies and customer retention. In other words, investing in advancing technology is crucial for telecom companies to not only attract customers but also retain them. To enhance customer retention, the study provided recommendations for UTL: (i)UTL should focus on educating customers about their data services/products, (ii) efforts should be made to improve network accessibility, and (iii)UTL should make substantial investments in equipment services while also prioritizing customer understanding and engagement.

Advancing Technology And Customer Retention In The Telecom Industry Of Uganda: A Case Of Uganda Telecom Limited
Authors:- Lakavath Mounika, Asst. Prof. K.Abhiram

Abstract-Waste disposal is a major issue in areas where rapid development and urbanization are occurring on a small piece of land. Due to a lack of available land, landfill waste disposal is a major environmental problem in many parts of the world.hazardous. Garbage-to-resource conversion is an appealing substitute for traditional garbage disposal. Conservation of waste into construction material has been shown to be a viable option for the management of large quantities of garbage, providing a double benefit in terms of both a solution to waste disposal and a useful byproduct.Nearly 20% of India’s total land area is comprised of expansive soils, commonly referred to as Black cotton soils (Mohanty et al., 2018; Seehra 2008; Chen 1988). The physical and chemical properties of these deposits cause them to fluctuate in volume with the changing of the seasons (Bhuvaneswari et al., 2018; Sadam 2017; Snethen et al., 1975; Chen, 1988). Inflating ground causes more annual damage in terms of dollars than any other type of natural disaster (Mir, 2015; Petry, and Armstrong, 1989; Jones, and Holtz, 1973).Poor performance and high maintenance costs are typical for pavements built on these soils (Narendra et al., 2018; Magdi 2018; Chittoori et al., 2018; James et al., 2017; Manchikanti and Raju 2011; Steinberg 1992). Use of waste materials and ashes collected from diverse sources has been brought to light as a way to improve soil physical qualities at a low cost and sidestep waste management issues.The presence of the expanding lattice mineral montmorillonite in expansive soils has been documented (Khan et al., 2019; Mahmoud et al., 2018).Seehra (2008) notes that these soils have a high clay content, which is reflected in their strong swell-shrink nature, high liquid limit, and low CBR values. Prior to construction, these soils needed to be amended with a variety of waste products, including After laying several sections of untreated and treated alternatives, lab experiments were followed by field test track research.

A Comprehensive Assessment of the Structural Similarity Index on Spine MR Images Using Improved Edge Detection Technique
Authors:- M.Tech.Scholar Sneh Lata. Asst.Prof. Shyna Babbar, Prof. Dr. Gurpreet Singh,

Abstract-Edge detection is a fundamental technique in digital image processing used to identify and highlight the boundaries or edges between different objects or regions within an image. The goal of edge detection is to locate significant changes in intensity or color in an image, which typically correspond to transitions in the underlying properties of the objects being imaged.SM provides a quantitative measure of the similarity between two images. It allows researchers and developers to objectively evaluate the quality of processed images compared to the original ones. By measuring the structural similarity, it helps determine the effectiveness of various image processing techniques and algorithms.

Enhancing Concrete Barrier Reflectivity With A Recycled Glass Aggregate Replacement
Authors:- Pokala Arjun, Asst.Prof. K. Abhiram

Abstract-On the roadways of the United States, increased accident rates during the evening and rainy weather conditions entail the need of improving the visibility of highway concrete barriers. The reflectance of these delineators is directly correlated to their degree of visibility. The use of white cement as opposed to grey cement and the installation of raised pavement markings to the side of the barriers are two of the suggested approaches that might potentially boost the reflectivity of these concrete barriers. There are several other potential methods. One of the suggested approaches that was put through more laboratory testing was the use of recycled glass in the production of concrete. The purpose of the laboratory experiment was to determine the appropriate mixing proportions that would reduce the likelihood of the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) occuring in recycled glass aggregate concretes without having any detrimental impacts on the compressive strength of the concrete. This paper includes the results of an evaluation done on the retro reflectivity of different concrete mixes.

Modeling and Analysis of Grid Connected Induction Generator for Wind Power Application
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Mohit Kumar, Asst.Prof.Harjit Singh

Abstract- Over the once many decades, there has been an adding use of induction creator particularly in wind power operations. In creator operation, a high transport( turbine, machine) drives the rotor above the coetaneous speed. Stator flux still induces currents in the rotor, but since the opposing rotor flux is now cutting the stator coils, active current is produced in stator coils, and motor now operates as a creator, and sends power back to the electrical grid. As founded on the source of reactive power being produced induction creators can be subdivided into two types videlicet standalone creator and Grid connected induction creator. In case of standalone IGs the bewitching flux is established by a capacitor bank connected to the machine and in case of grid connection it draws bewitching current from the grid. This design explicitly deals with the study of grid connected induction creators where frequence and voltage of the machine will be mandated by the electric grid. Among these types of IGs, twice Fed Induction creator( DFIG) wind turbines are currently decreasingly used in large wind granges because of their capability to supply power at constant voltage and frequence. ultramodern control ways similar as Vector control and MFC( magnitude and frequence control) are studied and some of proposed systems are dissembled in MATLAB- SIMULINK terrain.

Examine the Temperature assessment of Foamed Warm Mix Asphalt
Authors:- Bairam Ramu, Asst. Prof. K. Abhiram

Abstract- Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) has the potential to reduce the application temperature of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) and improve workability without compromising the performance of asphalt pavement. This promises various benefits, e.g., a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, decreased energy consumption and costs, improved working conditions, better compaction, extended paving season, higher reclaimed asphalt content, earlier opening to traffic, etc. These benefits as well as the potential concerns are discussed in this chapter. Mix design considerations and possible specializations of WMA technologies are summarized. Different WMA production technologies are reviewed with an emphasis on practical applications.

Analysis on Conditions on Asphalt Pavement Behaviour for Mechanistic Analysis
Authors:- Kudikala Rajesh Kumar, Asst. Prof. Mudigonda Harish

Abstract- In the broadest sense, a pavement is any man-made surface designed to support the weight of moving vehicles, be they passenger cars or trucks carrying goods. In order for the subgrade (the most compressible section of the pavement structure) to support the weight of the wheels, the paving thickness and properties of the paving materials must be determined in order to construct a pavement. Pavement design is predicated on the principle of stress dissipation via the pavement layers to prevent failure of the subgrade soil. When a vehicle’s weight is transferred through its wheels, the contact area between the tyres and the pavement is quite narrow. This causes a great deal of stress to be exerted on the pavement’s surface. Since the stiffness of a pavement gradually decreases from top to bottom along a vertical portion, understanding how stress is distributed across a layered system of granular materials is crucial. Therefore, the design load in pavement is taken into account as the number of passes of a standard wheel load over a pavement section to be designed, as the wheel load by vehicle on a pavement at a certain design speed does not remain static on a fixed location. Therefore, the strength of the subgrade on which the pavement is to be built, as well as the projected loads on the pavement over the design period, are crucial to the design of the pavement. If the frequency of the loads is constant, a thinner pavement will be needed on weaker subgrade, and vice versa. The same is true for pavement, where a thicker section is needed for bigger load repetitions if the subgrade strength remains the same. Mechanistic design procedures are those that use models based on basic engineering mechanics to determine the stress level in a pavement and to foretell how the pavement will react and behave. However, empirical methods are those that rely on models derived from experience and observation of previous performance.

Advancements in Cmos Lc Vco Design for Radio Frequency Applications: A Comprehensive Review
Authors:- M.Tech.Scholar Jyanti lodhi

Abstract- This paper delves into the examination of various topologies employed in the design of CMOS LC VCOs, with a specific focus on achieving lower power consumption and reduced phase noise. Four distinct topologies were investigated and compared based on their power consumption and phase noise characteristics. The results of this comparative analysis reveal that the CMOS LC VCO with pseudo resistance exhibits the lowest phase noise, while the differential cross-coupled CMOS LC VCO demonstrates superior power efficiency. Among the studied topologies, the cross-coupled differential LC VCO topology emerges as a popular choice for optimizing the trade-off between phase noise and power consumption. By leveraging this topology, designers can strike a balance between these competing factors, leading to improved performance in practical applications.

The Effects of Artificial Intelligence on the Economic Front
Authors:- Krish Prabu

Abstract- Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as a disruptive force transforming various economic sectors and has attracted widespread attention and attention from researchers, policy makers and industry experts. This research paper provides an in-depth analysis of the impact of AI on the economy, looking at its impact on productivity, employment, innovation, market dynamics and income distribution. The research uses a mixed methods approach, combining quantitative data analysis and qualitative case studies to provide a holistic view of the economic impact of AI. Using data from different industries and regions, we explore how artificial intelligence technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing and robotics are changing traditional business models, processes and labor markets. At the same time, the integration of artificial intelligence has affected the labor market, the requirements for skills and work have changed.

Design And Development Of Hydraulic Based Automated Dumper Bucket For Three Wheeler Electric Goods Carrier
Authors:-Mr. Sunil S.D, Asst. Prof. Shrinatha R Katti

Abstract- Thecurrent work involves developing a dumper bucket for an electric vehicle used to carry goods. The dumper bucket will be responsible for loading and unloading the goods efficiently. To achieve this, the project aims to automate the loading and unloading process based on the weight of the goods. The first step is to determine the requirements of the dumper bucket by considering the carrying capacity of the electric goods carrier and the type of materials it will transport. To enable easy tilting and unloading of the materials, a hydraulic system will be integrated into the dumper bucket. This hydraulic system will be powered by a battery mounted on the electric goods carrier. Safety features are incorporated, including a limit switch to prevent over-tilting of the bucket, ensuring safe operations. The final stage of the project focuses on automation. An Arduino UNO is used to develop a prototype model of the automated system. A load cell is employed to detect the applied load on the dumper bucket. Based on this load data, a buzzer and LED lights will be activated to provide warnings. Additionally, if the load exceeds the maximum limit, the system will cut off the power supply to the motor to prevent any unsafe conditions. Once the dumper bucket is fabricated and installed on the electric vehicle, it undergoes rigorous testing to verify that it can handle the required load capacity and operates safely. The aim is to create an efficient and secure system that automates the loading and unloading process for the electric goods carrier, enhancing its functionality and usability.

An Overview of Machine Learning Methods for Restoring Images
Authors:- M. Tech. Scholar Pavan Kalme, Prof. Virendra Verma

Abstract-Computer vision relies on image restoration to restore pictures damaged by noise, blurring, or compression errors. In recent years, machine learning technologies, especially deep learning ones, have become formidable picture restoration tools. This study discusses picture restoration machine learning approaches, their concepts, benefits, and drawbacks.The study introduces picture restoration and its importance in medical imaging, surveillance, and photography. After that, it discusses machine learning and picture restoration. After sparse coding and dictionary learning, the subject moves on to deep learning.Image restoration using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) is examined in deep learning. CNNs’ design and ability to automatically learn detailed features from huge datasets make them ideal for capturing complex deterioration patterns. The research also examines Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in picture restoration, especially when generative modeling is used.Image restoration applications such denoising, deblurring, super-resolution, and inpainting are covered. The article describes the machine learning methods used in each application, including their pros and cons. It also emphasizes the need of dataset curation and assessment criteria for picture quality and generalization.

A Review of Breast Cancer using Deep Learning
Authors:- M. Tech. Scholar Nikita Modi, Prof. Akshay Gupta, Mr. Pritesh Jain

Abstract-Breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world, right after lung cancer. Women are more likely to have this problem than any other group. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer that kills women who are old enough to have children. Medical imaging is not an exception to this rule, because there is always more to learn and room for improvement in every field. If cancer is found early and handled well, it is thought that the number of people who die from it will go down. Using machine learning methods can help improve the accuracy of diagnoses made by people who work in the health care field. Deep learning, also called neural networking, could be used to tell the difference between breasts that are healthy and those that have cancer. With this method, you might be able to tell the difference between healthy and sick breast tissue. Long-term study on the subject looked at breast cancer and how Indian women screen for it, among other things. One of the main goals of the review was to find out about this. A literature review was done with the help of a number of libraries and other sources. Participants in the study were told to use phrases like “breast carcinoma” and “breast cancer awareness,” as well as words like “knowledge” and “attitude” and the gender-neutral word “women.” India also had something to do with the study that was done. This search does not look for English-language papers released in the last 12 years.

Evaluation of the Machine Learning Approach to Image Restoration
Authors:-M. Tech. Scholar Pavan Kalme, Prof. Virendra Verma

Abstract-Machine learning for picture restoration has garnered interest in recent years. This research thoroughly evaluates machine learning methods for picture restoration. We test state-of-the-art convolutional neural network designs and classical image processing algorithms on a heterogeneous dataset of damaged photos.The approach trains and fine-tunes convolutional neural networks on noise, blur, and compression artifacts. PSNR, SSIM, and perceptual quality evaluations are used to compare restoration quality. The models’ computational efficiency and generalization capabilities give a comprehensive evaluation.We found that machine learning approaches, especially convolutional neural networks, outperform classical methods in picture quality restoration across deterioration conditions. Perceptual quality measurements show that these models restore with greater PSNR, SSIM, and visual fidelity. Fine-tuning models for certain degradation kinds offers even better results.This research shows how machine learning can transform picture restoration. The results imply that convolutional neural networks may learn complex characteristics and relationships in damaged pictures, improving restoration quality. Medical imaging, surveillance, and art restoration all depend on picture integrity, therefore this finding has broad ramifications. Machine learning will become more important in picture restoration.

Deep Learning Technique for Breast Cancer Prediction
Authors:-M. Tech. Scholar Nikita Modi, Prof. Akshay Gupta, Mr. Pritesh Jain

Abstract-After lung cancer, breast cancer is the second most common type of cancer. The most common type of cancer is lung cancer. Women of childbearing age are more likely than men to be told they have breast cancer. To lower the death rate from breast cancer, it’s important to find it early. This is because it’s not clear what causes breast cancer. Cancer can be found early, which can improve the chance of life by up to 8%. This can include X-rays, mammograms, and sometimes even MRIs. what’s going on? Even the best doctors have trouble finding small lumps, bumps, and masses, which leads to a lot of wrong positive and wrong negative diagnoses. This is not a good sign at all. A lot of people want to make apps that can find breast cancer earlier and are better at what they do. New technology can now look at photos and then learn from what it finds. In this study, we used a Deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to separate calcifications, lumps, abnormalities, and carcinomas. In earlier works, this goal was reached with simple methods. The cancer was put into one of two groups, normal or aggressive, which helped doctors come up with better ways to treat it. The model had already been through a training lesson. To start, we used this method to finish transfer learning efficiently. The ResNet50. In the same way, we made our model for deep learning better. During the process of teaching a neural network, you can’t say enough about how important its learning rate is. Using the way we give, the rate at which you learn can be changed to fit your needs. When a person first starts to learn, they will make a few mistakes.

Life Cycle Optimization Of Residential Air Conditioner Replacement Using Artificial Neural Network
Authors:-Sawan Johara, Assistant Professor Deepak Solanki

Abstract- A two-in two-out steady-state artificial neural network (ANN)-based model for an experimental variable speed direct expansion air conditioning (A/C) system has been developed for simulating its total output cooling capacity and equipment sensible heat ratio under different combinations of compressor and supply fan speeds. Experiments were carried out, and totally sets of experimental data were obtained for ANN training and testing. An ANN-based model having the configuration of 2 neurons in the input layer, neurons in the output layer and neurons in each of the hidden layers, i.e. configuration, was thus developed. The ANN-based model developed can be used to predict the operating performance of the A/C system with a higher accuracy. It is expected that the model developed can help design a multivariable-input multivariable-output strategy to simultaneously control indoor air temperature and humidity.

A Review On Enhancement Of Heat Transfer Rate In Solar Air Heater Using W-Shaped Roughness
Authors:-M.Tech Scholar Amrit Suman, Prof. Brijendra Kumar Yadav

Abstract- Augmentation of convective heat transfer of a rectangular duct with the help of baffles/ribs has been a common practice in the past few years. This concept is widely applied in enhancing the thermo-hydrodynamic efficiency of various industrial applications such as thermal power plants, heat exchangers, air conditioning components, refrigerators, chemical processing plants, automobile radiators and solar air heaters. Solar air heater is a device used to augment the temperature of air with the help of heat extracted from solar energy. These are cheap, have simple design, require less maintenance and are eco-friendly. As a result, they have major applications in seasoning of timber, drying of agricultural products, space heating, curing of clay/concrete building components and curing of industrial products.

Design and Development of Hydraulic Based Automated Dumper Bucket for Three Wheeler Electric Goods Carrier
Authors:- Asst. Prof. Dr. Shrinatha R Katti, M.Tech. Mr. Sunil S.D

Abstract- The current work involves developing a dumper bucket for an electric vehicle used to carry goods. The dumper bucket will be responsible for loading and unloading the goods efficiently. To achieve this, the project aims to automate the loading and unloading process based on the weight of the goods. The first step is to determine the requirements of the dumper bucket by considering the carrying capacity of the electric goods carrier and the type of materials it will transport. To enable easy tilting and unloading of the materials, a hydraulic system will be integrated into the dumper bucket. This hydraulic system will be powered by a battery mounted on the electric goods carrier. Safety features are incorporated, including a limit switch to prevent over-tilting of the bucket, ensuring safe operations. The final stage of the project focuses on automation. An Arduino UNO is used to develop a prototype model of the automated system. A load cell is employed to detect the applied load on the dumper bucket. Based on this load data, a buzzer and LED lights will be activated to provide warnings. Additionally, if the load exceeds the maximum limit, the system will cut off the power supply to the motor to prevent any unsafe conditions. Once the dumper bucket is fabricated and installed on the electric vehicle, it undergoes rigorous testing to verify that it can handle the required load capacity and operates safely. The aim is to create an efficient and secure system that automates the loading and unloading process for the electric goods carrier, enhancing its functionality and usability.

Analysis on Particle Shape on Shear Behavior Of Aggregate-Geogrid in Pavements
Authors:- PG Scholar Kulkarni Saiteja, Asst. Professor Kalavala Abhiram

Abstract- Poor soil conditions make it impossible for civil engineers to build anything. A ground structure with sufficient bearing capacity is a necessary condition for a building’s stability. Weak soil can have its qualities enhanced by inclusion and confinement through reinforcement. It may fix the issues of shallow foundations with soft soil, such as insufficient bearing capacity and excessive settling. In this study, both experimental approaches and numerical analysis were used to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of geogrid-reinforced soil. Geosynthetic material’s inclusion and confinement in the soil were studied for their effects. For this experiment, researchers utilized dry sand the Godavari River, close to Mancheryal Telangana. Soil reinforcement using biaxial geogrid, made by Strata Geosystem Private Limited of Hyd, India A reaction frame, mild steel tank, hydraulic cylinder, power pack, electrical panel, and a model foundation are all part of the experimental set-up. The 750mm x 750mm x 750mm Mild Steel tank was used for the tests. The dirt was compacted with the use of a plate vibrator, and a hydraulic cylinder with a 50 kN capacity was employed to provide the vertical load. Experiments were conducted on a total of 208 separate test sets with five variables in mind: the influence of the geogrid’s topmost layer, the spacing between succeeding , the number of geogrid layers, the geogrid’s breadth, and eccentric loading conditions. Plotting the load settlement curves for each of tests allowed us to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil for each geogrid arrangement. Using the finite element program , the experimental test findings were verified. OPTUMG2 models were used to examine this study’s research topic from the perspectives of the many factors considered. The collapse multiplier, or ultimate carrying capacity, is calculated by the program using analysis theorems. This research demonstrates that the location of geosynthetic reinforcement in the soil is the most important factor in determining the effectiveness of the reinforcement. The soil collapsed in general shear failure, as shown by the load settlement curves obtained from experimental tests. When the geogrid’s breadth is four times that of the footing, the first layer of the geogrid is 0.25 b from the base of the footing, and the number of layers is four with 0.25 b spacing and zero eccentricity xiv loading, the geogrid performs optimally. The experimental method and computational results both determined that the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil was 1981 kN/m2 at the optimal configuration of geogrid parameters. As x/b grows from 0.25 to for geogrid widths 3b and 4b, the contact area between soil particles decreases, leading to less frictional resistance on the failure plane. As a result, there is less peak load. Eccentrically loaded footing has a 39% lower ultimate bearing capacity than concentrically loaded footing in unreinforced soil. The ultimate load intensity in reinforced soil was 22 percent lower at e = 20 mm compared to a footing with a concentric load. This was because the geogrid in the soil mitigated the eccentricity impact. For each set of tests, the Bearing Capacity Factor (BCF) was experimentally computed to represent the increase in bearing capacity owing to geosynthetic inclusion. The best geogrid layout was determined to have a BCF of 5.69. There was a 19.61 percentage point increase in bearing capacity between concentrically loaded footing and eccentric loading circumstances when geogrid was used. Geogrids with a width of 4b were shown to efficiently resist greater horizontal shear loads.

Applying Performance Assessment on Mixture Design to Permeable Concrete Pavements
Authors:-PG Scholar Yedavalli Rajesh, Asst. Prof. Kalavala Abhiram

Abstract- The Indian economy is growing quickly; therefore, protecting its natural resources is essential to keeping nature and development in harmony. Any civilization may develop fully if it uses its water supply wisely, the most crucial resource. The demand for sustainable development is universal. In order to efficiently collect and transmit rain runoff, modern infrastructure design concepts advocate the use of impermeable materials like concrete and bitumen for parking lots, curbs, and gutters. In India, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other nations, conventional Portland cement concrete and asphalt are utilized for pavement building. The increased water runoff is due to the impermeable nature of certain building materials. Rapid, excessive, and increasingly polluted storm water flow into receiving water bodies under these conditions disrupts the natural equilibrium of the environment. The use of pervious concrete to create porous surfaces has the potential to address a number of environmental concerns, such as the depletion of groundwater. Parking lots, walkways, and driveways paved with pervious concrete can alleviate this issue. The aggregate particles in pervious concrete are coated in a thick paste made from regulated proportions of water and cementitious ingredients. The following sections outline the hypotheses for this study of past concrete. Newline Formulation of Past Concrete Mix Proportions 1. Newline Two: Putting in place a permanent concrete pavement and keeping an eye on it newline. The primary goal of this study is to formulate an optimal pervious concrete mixture design for pervious concrete pavement. Compressive strength, void ratio, permeability, and density are among the presumed target attributes of previous concrete that have informed the development of mixture design. Tensile strength, porosity, and compressive strength are the primary metrics of interest.

A Review on CFD Analysis of Tubular and Sector-By-Sector Helical Coil Heat Exchanger
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Shashi Kumar Keshri, Prof. Sujeet Kumar Singh

Abstract- A heat exchanger may be defined as an equipment which transfers the energy from a hot fluid to a cold fluid, with maximum rate and minimum investment and running cost. The rate of transfer of heat depends on the conductivity of the dividing wall and convective heat transfer coefficient between the wall and fluids. The heat transfer rate also varies depending on the boundary conditions such as adiabatic or insulated wall conditions. Heat exchange between flowing fluids is one of the most important physical processes of concern, and a variety of heat exchangers are used in different type of installations, as in process industries, compact heat exchangers nuclear power plant, HVACs, food processing, refrigeration, etc. The purpose of constructing a heat exchanger is to get an efficient method of heat transfer from one fluid to another, by direct contact or by indirect contact.

Effective Utilization of CBR and Plate Load Test to Analyze the Strength of Pavements
Authors:-Penta Mahesh, Asst. Prof. Mr. Abhiram

Abstract- Using California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests and finite element modelling (FEM), this study details the process of determining the elasticity modulus (E) and the subgrade response modulus (ks). Cosmos works FEM model represents the soil, the load plunger, and the steel Mould of CBR, simulating the pressure-displacement reaction of the soil in the CBR Mould. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) is positively correlated with the Modulus of Elasticity (E).created using the soil’s elasticity as a starting point. In addition, a link is postulated between E and CBR. The modulus of subgrade response may be determined from E values and vice versa. Foundation design, soil structure interaction, highway formation design, etc. all rely on knowing the modulus of subgrade response, and the CBR test is thought to make this task easier.

Interlaminar Fracture of Aerospace Composites Materials
Authors:- Research Scholar Imran Abdul Munaf Saundatti, Research Guide Dr. G R Selokar

Abstract- A fiber-polymer composite’s resistance to delamination is one of its most crucial mechanical characteristics. Even partial delaminations will result in a loss of stiffness, which can be a crucial design factor. The presence of delaminations may also result in complete fracture. A fracture mechanics approach has been the obvious method for characterizing this phenomenon because delamination can be thought of as the progression of a crack. The use of fracture mechanics to determine interlaminar fracture energies, or GC, for various fiber polymer composites using different test geometries to produce mode I, mode II, and mixed mode I/II values of GC is therefore extensively documented in the literature. However, issues with consistency and debates over the accuracy of such results are common.

Literature Survey on Micro-hydro Systems
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Ram Pravesh Chauhan, Prof. Dr. Shweta Chourasia

Abstract-Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by the generators that are pushed by the water movement. This is one of the widely used sustainable power. One of the major advantages of the hydro power after constructing the plant is wastage is not created.22% of the word power is generated by hydroelectricity, which constitutes around about 78% of power from inexhaustible natural resources. The yearly hydroelectric creation of India is 115.6 TWh with an introduced limit is 33.6 GW. Miniature hydro is a word utilized for hydroelectric force establishments that commonly produce a power up to 300 KW of intensity. In a recent trend for controlling of most of the industrial loads is mainly based on semiconductor devices which cause such loads to be more sensitive against power system disturbances. Thus, the power quality problems have gained more interest recently. This paper presents a review of different method for energy generation and smart energy management system.

Electric Vehicle Aggregators in Electricity Markets under Optimal Conditions
Authors:- M.Tech.Scholar Vikas Thakur, Prof. Harjit Singh

Abstract- The objective of the proposed scheduling framework is to maximize the revenue of the EVAs while ensuring the fulfilment of charging demands and considering the constraints imposed by the electricity market. The framework takes into account various factors such as electricity prices, EV charging and discharging profiles, grid congestion, and individual EV owner preferences. To achieve the optimal scheduling of EVAs, a mathematical optimization model is formulated. The model aims to find the optimal charging and discharging schedules for the EV fleet, considering the real-time electricity prices and market conditions. Additionally, it incorporates the preferences of EV owners regarding their desired charging durations and departure times. The optimization model is solved using advanced optimization algorithms to obtain the optimal scheduling solution.

Category Attack-Based Searchable Symmetric Encryption Using Des Algorithm
Authors:- Dr.G.Ramesh , Dr.J.S. Kanchana, V.Lekhaa

Abstract- Symmetric searchable encryption (SSE), which allows a facts consumer to soundly seek and dynamically replace the encrypted documents stored in a semi-trusted cloud server, hasreceived considerable attention in recent years. We design the new data structure Category Attack-based SSE to support dynamic updating and boost verification and Leverage the timestamp mechanism within side the scheme to save you the malicious cloud from launching a replay attack. We can achieve more efficient query and verification with Data Encryption Standard Algorithm. By sampling the data, we can solve the problem of unbalanced distribution of network data. To look for functions that high-quality replicate the distinction among anomalous behaviors and normal behaviors Feature selection is enabled for various subsets of each category attacks. To determine the best sampling ratio of each category, DES is used to optimize the sampling ratio of each category and the performance of SSE is used to evaluate candidate sampled data. We verify the effectiveness of the data optimization proposed in this system, the precision, recall, and F1 score obtained by testing. Then we offer an in-depth overall performance analysis. Finally, we compare our scheme through complete experiments. The results are consistent with our analysis and show that our scheme is secure, and more efficient compared with the previous methods with the same functionalities.

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of A Hybrid Geosynthetic Reinforcement System To Mitigate The Differential Heave On Flexible Pavement Due To Expansive Subgrade
Authors:- Kosuna Sai Siddhartha , Asst. Prof. Dr. K. Venkatesh

Abstract-When dealing with expansive soils beneath roadway constructions, transportation agencies have significant issues in terms of ride quality and serviceability. These soils display swell-shrink behaviour when the amount of moisture changes, which create superficial heaving on the pavement structure and are extremely expensive to maintain. Despite remedial measures that exhibited satisfactory results for most of the sections, recurrent damage stillcontinued in fewsections. Hybrid geosynthetic solutions were proposed to address the negative consequences of the swell-shrink behaviour of soil at a deeper depth. In railway applications, hybrid geosynthetic systems were employed to successfully reduce expansive soil swelling. To evaluate the use of hybrid geosynthetic systems to reduce differential heaving from expansive subgrades, a test was developed to simulate a pavement section with an expansive subgrade. Therefore, the purpose of this research project was to investigate the possibility of adopting hybrid geosynthetic reinforcement systems to reduce differential pavement heaving brought on by expanding soils beneath the pavement.

Potential Use of Waste Rice Husk Ash for Concrete Paving Blocks: Strength, Durability, and Run- Strength, Durability, and Run-off Properties off Properties off Properties
Authors:- Eru Madhu, Assistant Prof. K. Abhiram

Abstract- The annual increase in OPC demand throughout the world is measured in billions of tons. Sustainable binders have the potential to reduce the rising need for cement. The use of blast furnace slag, fly ash, and silica fume, among other industrial byproducts, as a cement additive has become widespread in recent years. Silica’s reactivity in rice husk ash is affected by several interconnected variables, such as incineration time and temperature. Twenty- five RHA samples were made. After extensive testing of the many variables that affect grinding efficiency, the ideal grinding setup was finally discovered. Each RHA sample was ground using the most efficient methodology. Analytical and conduct metric methods were used to ascertain the amorphous silica concentration of RHA samples, among other physical parameters. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and elemental analysis are only some of the experimental techniques that have confirmed the reactivity of ash. In this study, RHA concrete with a compressive strength of more than 90 MPa was produced. Increases in RHA concentration lead to notable enhancements in the performance parameters of RHA-concrete mixes, including chloride permeability, saturated water absorption, and sorptivity. The sorptivity and water absorption of RHA-blended concrete are shown to be linearly related. Comparing RHA to micro-silica in a cost-benefit analysis, we find that using RHA might lead to a 40% reduction in the price of supplementary cementitious material.

Using GPT-3 to Create General Purpose Assistance Model for MIT World Peace University
Authors:- Vrishani Shah, Viswas Haridas, Anupam Shekhar, Rushabh Bhatt, Asst.Prof. Dr. Rajendra Pawar

Abstract-The annual increase in OPC demand throughout the world is measured in billions of tons. Sustainable binders have the The MIT-GPT project is a college query assistant built using the OpenAI API and LangChain, which aims to provide accurate and relevant responses to MIT-WPU-related queries. With the increasing demand for online education and the need for instant information, having an AI-powered assistant to answer college-related queries can significantlybenefit students, faculty, and staff alike. This technical report provides an overview of the MIT-GPT project, including its architecture, data sources, and performance evaluation.

Dynamic Characteristics of A Sandy Subgrade Textile Fibers in Pavement
Authors:- Nagula Saikiran, Asst. Prof.Mudigonda Harish Kumar

Abstract-The ceaselessly developing individuals and, explicitly, ‘rapid style’ has placed the expectation for apparel high. The drawn-out utilization of materials actuated broadened squander. Material waste, while perhaps not fittingly managed, can cause serious thriving dangers. The traditional techniques for the material waste association, for example, landfilling and consumption, are not harmless to the organic framework. Thus, it makes a big difference to urge better ways of managing reuse or reuse squander materials and new applications. In this evaluation, in the main piece, thermoset epoxy and thermoplastic polypropylene (PP) composites with four unique fiber volume portions (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4) were made utilizing cotton strands disconnected from squander materials and waste polyester filaments made during polyester staple yarn fabricating. Further, the flexibility of cotton/PP composites reduces with an improvement in fiber stacking. Then again, the izod influence strength increments with an augmentation in cotton fiber stacking. The flexural strength of cotton/PP composite augmentations with an expansion in cotton stacking from 20 to 40 wt.% and decreases when cotton stacking increases to 50 wt.%. The malleable, flexural, and Izod influence strength of polyester/PP composites increments with polyester fiber stacking..

Investigation on Framework to Estimate the Benefit Cost Ratio of Establishing Minimum Pavement Friction Levels
Authors:- Kamera Manisha, Asst. Prof. Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-In this study, we present a framework for calculating the BCR and setting the threshold at which to initiate SN treatment. Using an MC degradation model, the suggested method quantifies the number of lane miles that must be addressed in order to assess the network’s maintenance cost. Indirect expenses included things like lost time at work and accidents caused by traffic congestion. A monetary value for the benefit was determined by using reductions in crash rates per vehicle mile traveled. Here’s a brief summary of what we discovered: (1) This paper’s major novel contribution is an analytical framework that can be utilized by transportation organizations to estimate the BCR of maintenance plans that aim to offer a minimal SN in a highway network. This evaluation is supposed to be duplicated in a variety of settings, unlike previous studies that depended on engineers’ subjective opinion, assumed values, or local experience to establish either the treatment cost or the benefit of crash reduction. The study may be modified by changing the economic variables used to take into account regional differences. As such, the goal of this study is to provide an estimate of the BCR in situations where an agency employs the intervention threshold approach (i.e., only treats segments with friction levels below a specific threshold). These results are limited to networks in which an agency applied an intervention threshold approach since no additional networks were considered. This investigation does not assess the efficacy of the intervention threshold strategy for controlling skid resistance. .

Investigation on Framework to Estimate the Benefit Cost Ratio of Establishing Minimum Pavement Friction Levels
Authors:- D.Anusha, Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-Incorporation of high content of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) into fresh asphalt mixtures make them prone to thermal cracking and fatigue failure. Rejuvenators are usually recommended to overcome this problem by restoring the aged asphalt binder properties. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of using Mustard oil as a rejuvenator and to evaluate its effectiveness as a rejuvenator by determining the extent to which it restores the chemical and physical properties of aged asphalt binder extracted from RAP. The effect of Mustard oil on physical, rheological, chemical and thermal properties of aged asphalt binder was studied by employing Rotational Viscometer, Dynamic Shear Rheometer, Bending Beam Rheometer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetric analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Rolling bottle equipment. Results indicated that Mustard oil effectively restores the properties of aged asphalt binder and can be used as a suitable rejuvenator. Ten per cent of Mustard oil is recommended as an optimum dose for rejuvenation of aged asphalt binder. This dose is based on restoring the RAP binder to match the properties of neat binder having PG64 and is specific to the stiffness of RAP material being used.

Design of low power high speed comparators for flash ADC applications
Authors:- Devendra Kushwaha, Prof. Ashish Ranjan

Abstract-The fundamental requirements of VLSI design are high speed, low power and compact size. Comparators are basic building elements for designing of ADCs. In this work, a dynamic comparator is proposed which is based on double tail architecture. A modification in the form of an extra transistor (control transistor Msc) has been added to the previous circuit [10] along with a reduction in the length of the MOSFET transistor from 180-nm to 90-nm. The proposed comparator attains a sampling speed of 3.3 GHz at a supply voltage of 1.2V and is designed on 90nm CMOS Technology. The power consumption in terms of energy per conversion is 0.2221198 pico Joule and the worst case delay (for ΔV of 1 mV) is found to be 17.7 pico seconds. Apart from the supply voltage, the proposed comparator attains better output parameters compared to previously existing work.

An Analysis of the Capability of Machine Learning to Recognize Facial Expressions
Authors:- M.Tech.Scholar Pritesh Raut, Prof. Dikshika Maliwad

Abstract- Expression recognition of the face is an important component in a broad range of different applications. In order to accomplish a work of this kind, which requires a significant amount of manual labor, the conventional method of feature extraction is used. In the past, various deep neural networks were employed for this purpose; however, presently there are several new approaches that may be used, and these new techniques are probably superior than the older ones. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a method for recognizing faces that combines the convolutional neural network (CNN) with the detection of picture edges. The procedure that has been presented is broken down into two stages: the first involves standardizing the facial expression that can be seen in the picture, and the second makes use of convolution in order to extract the image’s edges. After that, a method referred to as maximum pooling is carried out in order to bring the dimensionality down. As soon as the Softmax classifier has finished putting the term into a category, it will be recognized. The facial expression identification investigation was successfully finished with the help of the Fer-2013 dataset. The method that has been presented is capable of reaching a rate of expression recognition of up to 99.68 percent when applied to the dataset that is being utilized. The provided method achieves recognition with a lower number of repetitions, while the system itself is anywhere from five to fifteen times more efficient than the SDSRN, AlexNet, and VGGnet algorithms.

Crop Yield and Fertilizer Recommendation Using Machine Learning
Authors:- PG Scholar Ambala Srinivas, Associate Professor Dr. S. Srinivas

Abstract- It’s no secret that the vast majority of India’s 1.2 billion people make their living in the agricultural sector. Farmers grow the same crops year after year without trying any new types, and they use fertilizer in arbitrary amounts, often without realizing that they aren’t using nearly enough of it. Soil acidity and damage to the soil’s upper layer are two more consequences. Therefore, we developed the system with the use of machine learning algorithms to help farmers. Our system can determine the best crop to grow in a given area by analyzing the soil and weather. The system also provides information on the types and quantities of fertilizers and seeds that should be used. As a result, our technology can help farmers cultivate alternative crops, perhaps increase their profits, and lessen the risk of soil pollution.

Role of ANN
Authors:- Siddharth Mishra

Abstract- The role of artificial neural networks (ANNs) has become increasingly significant in various fields. ANNs, inspired by the structure of the human brain, is computational models designed to recognize patterns and make predictions based on input data. They excel at solving complex problems that are difficult to tackle using traditional algorithms. In recent years, ANNs have been instrumental in revolutionizing industries such as computer vision, natural language processing, and autonomous systems. They have demonstrated remarkable performance in tasks like image classification, object detection, speech recognition, language translation, and self-driving cars. The key strength of ANNs lies in their ability to learn from large datasets and generalize knowledge to make accurate predictions on unseen data. By leveraging their hierarchical structure and numerous interconnected artificial neurons, ANNs can identify intricate patterns and extract relevant features, enabling them to recognize complex objects or understand intricate relationships.

A Review on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Tubular Heat Exchanger with Twisted Tape
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Uttam Kumar, Prof. Suresh Kumar Badholiya

Abstract- Thermal power stations, chemical processing plants, air conditioning equipment, freezers, petrochemical, biomedical, and food processing facilities are only some of the many current uses for heat exchangers with twisted-tape inserts, which promote convective heat transmission. As the twisted tape insert adds swirl to the bulk flow, it causes the thermal boundary layer on the tube’s surface to separate. The thermal performance of heat exchangers can be enhanced by the application of heat transfer improvement methods. Tape inserts are a common passive heat transfer augmentation method used in many settings. These include air conditioning and refrigeration systems as well as the food processing sector.

A Review on Thermal Analysis and Optimization of Chevron Nozzle using Taguchi Method
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Umashankar Kumar, Prof. Suresh Kumar Badholiya

Abstract- One of the most pressing issues in aviation today is noise pollution and the imperative to significantly lessen the noise exposure of communities in close proximity to airports. The most significant times of noise production in aircraft occur during takeoff and landing. The engines of a commercial airliner are typically the loudest parts of the plane. The secondary source is found in the surrounding airflow (aerodynamic source). In this paper review on thermal analysis and optimization of chevron nozzle using Taguchi method has been done.

A Review on Vibration Analysis and Damping Characteristics of Laminated Composite with Cut-Out
Authors:- M. Tech. Scholar Ankit Jain, Prof., Ravindra Kumar Raj

Abstract- Advantages of fibrous composites and lamination are combined in laminated fiber-strengthened composites. Fiber-reinforced materials are used in the construction of each layer. The fibers in each lamina are laid out differently to impart different qualities and levels of stiffness. So, the most favored perspective with fibre reinforced composite materials is that, the with right lamination processes, quality and rigid solidity may be achieved in a specific direction as per the needs of the design. In this paper review on FEM analysis of laminated composite plate has been done.

Review Onn energy Analysis Of Triple Effect Lithium Bromide Absorption Refrigeration System
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Sourabh Singh Patel, Prof. Nitin Tenguria

Abstract-The decreasing supply of fossil fuels like natural gas, coal, and oil and the growing negative effect of these fuels make renewable energy sources more and more essential. Therefore, absorption refrigeration systems (ARSs) have been increasingly preferred over vapor compression refrigeration systems in recent years. Here are some of ARS primary benefits: They may make use of several renewable energy sources (such geothermal or solar) and, depending on the working fluid pairs employed in the system, do not deplete the ozone layer.therefore, in this paper, a review on energy and exergy analysis of triple effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration system has been done.

Effect of popular culture on the Lifestyle of the Viewers of OTT Platform
Authors:- Research Scholar Miss. Megha Paul, Miss. Mekhla Paul, HoS. Dr. Shruti Nigudkar, Dr. Vaishali Mardhekar

Abstract-With the advent of technology, busier, hectic schedules with almost no time for entertainment, and then the outbreak of the pandemic in recent years, there has been a sharp rise in the viewing of dramas, movies, and shows using various OTT platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime, Disney+ Hotstar and many more. In addition, ever since the outbreak of the Hallyu waves in the 90s, the consumption of Korean dramas, music, and lifestyle has only seen an increase with globalisation playing an important role in it. And this paper tries to look at the various reasons why people prefer watching, listening to, and using Korean dramas, music, and products. Furthermore, the paper will also try to see ‘watching these Korean dramas or listening to Kpop reIt also tries to understand the effects of these Korean dramas, music, and products on young adults who are one of the biggest consumers of this Korean media and its products.

Interlaminar Fracture of Aerospace Composites Materials
Authors:- Research Scholar Imran Abdul Munaf Saundatti, Research Guide Dr. G R Selokar

Abstract-Composite materials are extensively used in aerospace industries for manufacturing aerospace parts. These parts very to mold and have high strengths. Aerospace components are subjected to impact loading. The stiffness of composite ply varies with respect to ply orientation and resin percentage used. The resistance to withstand the dynamic behavior of each lamina in the presence of resin which acts as a single core material plays a very significant role in withstanding the loads under various load conditions. The use of fracture mechanics to calculate interlaminar fracture stiffness for different composite materials made of fibers and polymers using test geometries of mode I/II fractures.

A Review of Sustainable Developments in Geopolymer Concrete
Authors:- Assistant Prof. M Fayaz, Associate Professor Dr. K Venkatesh, Assistant Professor Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-Geopolymer concrete is proved to have high strength, lesser shrinkage, resistance against reinforcement corrosion, acid and sulphate resistance, freeze-thaw resistance, fire resistance and resistance to alkali-aggregate reaction. There are many parameters which influence the strength characteristics of Geopolymer Concrete. They are types and fineness of Source alumino silicate material used, concentration and type of alkaline activators used, curing temperature and curing time, utilization of M-sand etc. High performance characteristics could be achieved through the correct choice of these parameters. This review paper focuses on the influence of different variables on the properties of geopolymer concrete and the progress in the field of geopolymer concrete. Consequently many research papers pertaining to the geopolymer have been reviewed in this state of art paper.

Analysis and Design of Two Layered flexible Pavement Systems: A New Mechanistic Approach
Authors:- Lecturer V Hema, Assistant Professors M Harish Kumar, Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-Analysis of two layered flexible pavements is considered as a significant aspect for design of low volume roads, which typically consist of a thick granular base course directly laid over subgrade with or without a thin asphalt- wearing course. Permanent deformation or rutting has been observed to be the major distress mode in thin surfaced or unsurfaced low volume roads. In the present study, a new formulation has been proposed to de- termine the surface and interface deflections for both single and standard axle dual wheel assembly for a two layered pavement system. The present formulation has been developed based on mechanistic approach and the solutions obtained from 3-dimensional finite element program, using ABAQUS taking into account the influence of rectangular tire imprint, modulus of granular base course, pavement thickness and ratio of modulus of pavement and subgrade. The effect of Poisson’s ratio of granular base and subgrade is observed to be very insignificant. For the estimation of surface and interface deflections, deflection factors have been generated in the form of non-dimensional charts as a function of ratio of modulus of pavement and subgrade, and ratio of pa- vement thickness and tire width.

Numerical Simulation of Inverted Pavement Systems
Authors:- Lecturer B Narsimha, Associate Professor Dr. K Venkatesh, Assistant Professor Modugu Naveen Kumar

Abstract-Conventional pavements rely on stiff upper layers to spread traffic loads onto less rigid lower layers. In contrast, an inverted pavement system consists of an unbound aggregate base compacted on top of a stiff cement-treated base and covered by a relatively thin asphalt concrete layer. The unbound aggregate interlayer in an inverted pavement experiences high cyclic stresses that incite its inherently nonlinear granular media behavior. A physically sound, nonlinear elastoplastic material model is selected to capture the unbound granular base in a finite-element simulator developed to analyze the performance of inverted pavement structures. The simulation results show that an inverted pavement can deliver superior rutting resistance, as compared with a conventional flexible pavement structure with similar fatigue life.

Advancements in Thirsty Concrete
Authors:- Asst. Professor P Sai Sudha, Asst. Professor Modugu Naveen Kumar, Kalvala Abhiram

Abstract-Pervious concrete has been used for many years in the southern United States but only recently have storm water mandates implemented by the United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created interest for more wide-spread installations, especially in freeze-thaw climates. Validation of the freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete under the most extreme conditions created an opportunity to explore many additional aspects of pervious concrete and to improve durability through additional mixture characterization and new construction practices. While the material components are similar to conventional concrete, the idiosyncratic behavior of pervious concrete requires revaluating material effects and relationships. Many different factors influence the performance of conventional concrete and many different factors also affect pervious concrete, although limited data exist to support observed and expected responses. The most crucial factors include the specific effect on freeze-thaw durability caused by the coarse aggregate type. Since the volume of paste in a pervious concrete system is much less than traditional concrete and exposure conditions much more severe, aggregate durability criteria must be determined for this specific application. The more extreme exposure conditions also require investigating the effect of air entrainment on the concrete mortar. Air entrainment improves freeze-thaw durability in conventional concrete, but to date has yet to be evaluated in pervious concrete. In addition to mixture properties, construction practices must be modified to suit pervious concrete. While the workability of conventional concrete can be simply checked using a standard slump cone, no method currently exists to determine the workability of pervious concrete. However, workability of pervious concrete influences the ease of placement and density, which also controls the yield and ultimate durability. Determining pervious concrete workability will allow more consistency between placements and help quantify the effect various mixture components have on the fresh mixture behavior. Due to it’s very low water-to-cement ratio (~0.30) curing of pervious concrete is particularly important. Pervious concrete is currently cured under plastic instead of using a conventional curing compound. No research has previously been performed to evaluate the effect various common curing methods have on strength and durability.

Improvement of Efficiency of Mixed Biodiesel Fuel: A Review
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Aafreen Khanam, Prof. & Head Nitin Tenguria

Abstract-Diesel with a biodiesel blend has recently been commercially available all over the world due to the paucity of fossil fuels. The growing cost and demand of conventional fuels are anticipated to be lessened by the use of biodiesel in diesel fuel mixes. Engine emissions are also known to be decreased by biodiesel fuel mixtures. The biodiesel may soon pose a threat to diesel fuel. Biodiesel cannot totally replace diesel fuel due to its high density, low cetane number, and poor calorific value. Consequently, biofuel-combined diesel engines are preferable. The study’s objective was to offer a thorough analysis of the articles on the combustion, ejection, and performance characteristics of diesel engines powered by biodiesel-diesel mixes. The potential and role of nanoparticles in the production of bioethanol have been investigated in numerous research studies in the past. This study summarized studies that used different biofuel nanoparticle ratios to analyze the effects on diesel fuel economy. Additionally, this study contained research publications outlining several techniques for enhancing engine performance. It had been reported that nanoparticle addition to biodiesel-diesel blends reduces brake-specific fuel consumption by 18 to 20% compared to blends containing no alcohol or alcohol with or without nanoparticles. Nanoparticles showed helpful function in the development of biofuels from feedstock preparation to chemical reactions. Nano particles were also investigated to be very thermally conductive, which increased combustion and brake performance by 2% to 5%, respectively. Studies have shown that nitric oxide ejections rose by 50% whereas HC, CO, and PM ejections significantly decreased. The results of the studies that were analyzed in this paper suggest that using biodiesel and biodiesel blends as a fuel for CI engines could possibly increase performance while lowering emissions.

Review on Durability Study of Concrete Using Foundry Waste Sand
Authors:- Kunal Verma, Prof. Mahroof Ahmed

Abstract-Concrete is the most extensively used construction material in the world, second to water. Increasing rate of urbanization and industrialization has lead to over exploitation of natural resources such as river sand and gravels, which is giving rise to sustainability issues. It has now become imperative to look for alternatives of constituent materials of concrete. Waste foundry sand, a by-product of ferrous and non ferrous metal casting industries is one such promising material which can be used as an alternative to natural sand in concrete. In last few decades, several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of addition of waste foundry sand as partial and complete replacement of regular sand in concrete. It has been found suitable to be used as partial replacement of sand in structural grade concrete. A number of properties have been reviewed in the current paper, the results observed from the various studies depict that replacement of foundry sand to a certain extent enhance the durability as well as strength properties of the concrete but simultaneously decreases the slump value with the increase of replacement level of waste foundry sand.

Study of Orbital Angular Momentum with OFDM Wireless Communication System
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Tarachand Panche, Asst. Prof. Prakash Pandey

Abstract-Electromagnetic (EM) wave was found to possess not only linear momentum, but also angular momentum. The OAM is a kind of wave front with helical phase. The OAM-based vortex wave has different topological charges, which are orthogonal to each other, bridging a new way for multiple accesses in wireless communications. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) is a wireless technology that uses multiple transmitters and receivers to transfer more data at the same time. This paper proposed implementation and performance analysis of orbital angular momentum with OFDM wireless communication system. The simulation is performed using MATLAB software.

Very Low Permeability Geomembranes Geosynthetics Design and Analysis of Its Erosion Control Behavior
Authors:- Shivam Yadav, Jitendra Chouhan (Assistant Professor)

Abstract- Geopolymers emerge as an ecological alternative for construction materials. These consist of a mixture of aluminosilicate sources and an alkaline solution that dissolves the silicon and aluminum monomers that come from the source to generate a gel called N–A–S–H that will control the main properties of the geopolymer. The geopolymer stands out for having good resistance to compression, as well as good resistance to high temperatures and corrosive environments. They have great potential as a replacement for classical technologies such as concrete, however, require further applied research to determine their feasibility on an industrial scale.

Anxiety Level Analysis through Real Time Image
Authors:- Krishna Patil, Rutuja Chavan, Shital A. Karande, Deepali Giri , Kshitija Thange, Rutuja Wankhede

Abstract-Anxiety is a mental illness that affects most people around the world. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing stress and improving personal health. Dental anxiety in children is a perennial concern and can be defined as the absence of feelings of fear, worry, anxiety or fear in an uncertain or unknown way. For this reason, the way to solve this anxiety in dentistry has been sought for a long time and it is important for the early detection of anxious children for the treatment of aggressive behaviour. The foundation for success in paediatric dentistry is behaviour management and the use of these behaviour management techniques to help children learn appropriate behaviour, problem-solving skills, stress reduction pressure, and facilitate appropriate oral therapy. Due to the burden of unmet expectations from parents, people and children, the use of behavioural management techniques in dentistry is constantly changing. This summary presents a new approach to stress detection using a convolutional neural network (CNN). CNN sequential model architectures are designed to extract important features from multiple sources and store expected physical properties in data. The model includes many convolutional techniques, additional techniques to reduce the size, and nonlinear activation functions showing nonlinearity. Training and testing data are separated to enable the performance model to be analysed. Various metrics, including accuracy, are used to evaluate the performance of continuously trained CNN models. The results of this project have important implications for early childhood depression research and interventions. The proposed CNN models are ranked from training and test data and show good results in stress detection.

Enhancement of Higher Performance Concrete (Hpc) By Using Waste Tyre Rubber Powder and Waste Plastic In Modified Road Construction Process
Authors:- Rishi Seth Manik, Shashikant B.Dhobale (Assistant Professor)

Abstract- Now-a-days it is necessary to utilize the wastes effectively with technical development in each field. The old abandoned tyres from cars,trucks,farm and construction equipment and off-road vehicles are stockpiled throughout the country. This leads to various environmental problems which include air pollution associated with open burning of tyres and other harmful contaminants like (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, dioxin, furans and oxides of nitrogen) and aesthetic pollution. They are non-biodegradable; the waste tyre rubber has become a problem of disposal. This paper is intended to study the feasibility of waste tyre rubber as binding material in bitumen, the waste tyre rubber is used with aggregate in different layer and also on the top surface layer mixed with bitumen in percentage and carried out different test result based on it, finding through it the difference in result by forming normal and rubber pavement and calculate the increase in strength of road pavement and also economically achieve.This is not only minimizes the pollution occurred due to waste tyres but also minimizes the use of conventional aggregate which is available in exhaustible quantity.

Labour Productivity Analysis in the Manufacturing Industries Using Fuzzy Logic Algorithm
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Ramesh Kanase, Asst. Prof. Vivek singh, HOD. Rajesh Rathore

Abstract- Manufacturing decisions inherently face uncertainties and imprecision. Fuzzy logic, and tools based on fuzzy logic, allow for the inclusion of uncertainties and imperfect information in decision making models, making them well suited for manufacturing decisions. In this study, we first review the progression in the use of fuzzy tools in tackling different manufacturing issues during the past two decades. We then apply fuzzy linear programming to a less emphasized, but important issue in manufacturing, namely that of product mix prioritization. The proposed algorithm, based on linear programming with fuzzy constraints and integer variables, provides several advantages to existing algorithm as it carries increased ease in understanding, in use, and provides flexibility in its application.

Thermal Performance Enhancement of Nanofluids Based Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Sustainable Environment
Authors:- PG Scholar Mohana Prakash M, Asst. Prof. Arulkumar T, Asst. Prof. Sugan V,
Asst. Prof. Soundararajan R

Abstract- The aims to document the latest developments on the applications of nano fluids as working fluid in parabolic trough collectors (PTCs). The influence of many factors such as nanoparticles and base fluid type as well as volume fraction and size of nanoparticles on the performance of PTCs has been investigated. The reviewed studies were mainly categorized into three different types of experimental, modeling (semi-analytical), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The main focus was to evaluate the effect of Nano fluids on thermal efficiency, entropy generation, heat transfer coefficient enhancement, as well as pressure drop in PTCs. It was revealed that Nano fluids not only enhance (in most of the cases) the thermal efficiency, convection heat transfer coefficient, and energy efficiency of the system but also can decrease the entropy generation of the system. The only drawback in application of Nano fluids in PTCs was found to be pressure drop increase that can be controlled by optimization in nanoparticles volume fraction and mass flow rate.

Design And Analysis Of Composite Shaft For A Dc Motor
Authors:- PG Scholar Kabilan G, Asst. Prof. Soundararajan R, Asst. Prof.Sugan V

Abstract- The purpose of the thesis is to investigate the use of a composite shaft material in place of a traditional shaft material (Carbon steel SAE 1045). Composite structures provide benefits over traditional metallic ones like stronger strength, higher specific stiffness, and reduced density. Applications where weight reduction is crucial without sacrificing quality or safety use composite shafts due to their unique properties. This thesis was created for businesses who produce motors and generators. This thesis intends to provide a composite shaft that is lighter than a normal shaft and will be employed in motors with lighter overall requirements.

An Exploration Of The State Of School Readiness In The Offering Of Multi-Grade Teaching: A Case Of Schools In Sekhukhune South District
Authors:- Segwadi Joseph Kokela , Khashane Stephen Malatji

Abstract- This study evaluated the state of schools in the implementation of multi-grade teaching. The researchers followed a qualitative approach with a case study research design. The study population consisted of 24 participants made up of teachers and principals in eight multi-grade schools in the Sekhukhune South District in Limpopo Province. Purposive sampling was used to select three participants from each of the six sampled schools, making a total sample size of 18 participants. Data was collected through individual interviews, focus group discussion, and document analysis. A thematic approach was employed to analyze the data, by identifying themes emerging from the data collection instruments. The study revealed that schools were not ready to offer multi-grade teaching. Teacher incapacity; lack of national framework on multi-grade teaching; and lack of teacher development programs caused schools not to be ready to offer the multi-grade curriculum. The study recommends that multi-grade teachers and their SMTs should be trained in multi-grade teaching. Moreover, schools should be provided with curriculum guidelines on multi-grade teaching. Furthermore, teacher-training universities should offer multi-grade teaching as a compulsory module.

Seisimic Analysis Of Cable Stayed Bridge With Different Design Of Tower Using Staad Pro
Authors:- M.Tech. Scholar Dheeraj Shukla, Asst. Prof. Hirendra Pratap Singh

Abstract- This research uses STAAD PRO software to conduct a structural analysis to examine the performance of cable stayed bridge with different shape of tower under different loading conditions. Results revealed that deflection is highest in an Y-shaped tower as compared to other shape, indicating that star cable arrangements will need more supports than other configurations.In the present investigation, the maximum shear force is obtained in Y-shape tower. The shear force in a cable bridge or any structure can vary depending on its design, load distribution, and applied loads. The maximum shear force in a Y-shaped tower cable bridge could be influenced by factors such as the arrangement and tension of cables, the loads the bridge is designed to carry (such as traffic or pedestrian loads), and the environmental conditions like wind or seismic forces.In the present investigation, the maximum bending momentis also obtained in Y-shape tower. The distribution of bending moments in a cable bridge or any structure depends on its design, the applied loads, and the load-bearing characteristics of the materials used. In a cable bridge with a Y-shaped tower, the distribution of bending moments will be influenced by various factors, including the arrangement of cables, the positions and orientations of the tower supports, and the type of loads the bridge is designed to carry. The bending moments are likely to be highest in regions where the structure experiences the most significant changes in curvature or where the loads are concentrated.

Layered Security Defense, A Panacea to Loss Of Intellectual Properties And Damages To Information System
Authors:-Odunayo Onaolapo Ajayi

Abstract- Cybersecurity has become a continuous lifecycle event that every business owner must consider before setting up a firm. As a result, the strength of an organization is as good as the ability of an organization to protect its intellectual properties. As the threats are becoming rampant and complex, the measures to curb their spread can also be complex and sophisticated. The past and projected economic consequences of the crime are very huge and devastating. This paper x-rays some of the reported cybercrimes across the globe and the proposed economic worth of future occurrences. To minimize the effect and avert economic instability, this paper discusses a Layered security framework and why it is better than a single-layered framework either for On-premises or Cloud-based security solution platforms.

Design and Implementation of 32bit Kogge Stone Adder
Authors:-Banashankari, Eleena Mohapatra

Abstract- The Kogge Stone Adder is a high-performance parallel prefix adder designed to enhance the speed of binary addition operations in digital systems. By mitigating the propagation delay associated with carry signals, it significantly accelerates the computation of binary sums. The adder employs a hierarchical structure, breaking down input numbers into groups and calculating carry signals concurrently{1]. This parallelism enables faster addition, making the Kogge Stone Adder particularly advantageous for wide bit-width arithmetic. Although its gate count is higher compared to traditional ripple carry adders, the drastic reduction in propagation delay compensates for this increase. Consequently, the Kogge Stone Adder proves to be a pivotal advancement in achieving rapid and efficient binary addition, vital for various applications demanding computational speed[2,3].

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